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Comprehensive veterinary information (Articles, Abstracts and Pathologies) in just one place.
Allergies in dogs: Clinical signs and diagnostic assessment

Consultations regarding allergies in dogs (clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment) are one of the most commonplace in routine clinical practice.

Clinical signs of leishmaniasis in dogs: A brief review

Dogs with leishmaniasis manifest a highly variable clinical picture because the disease affects a wide range of organs and systems.

What causes feline miliary dermatitis?

As mentioned above, the main cause of feline miliary dermatitis is flea bite hypersensitivity. Some cats become extremely sensitive to fleas and a single bite can be enough to cause a quite severe skin reaction. This skin condition is more likely to develop in cats that live in warm climates.

Ticks in dogs: Significance as a disease vector

Ticks in dogs can act as vectors of various diseases, some of which have zoonotic potential.

Larvae in dogs: How to manage myiasis

Certain species of flies can deposit their larvae on dogs.

Osteosarcomas in dogs: diagnosis and therapeutic options

Osteosarcomas in dogs are a malignant mesenchymal tumour of primitive bone cells that primarily affects large or giant breed dogs.1

Lymphomas in dogs: predictors of long-term survival

Lymphomas account for about 5–7% of all neoplasms in dogs and about 80% of haematopoietic tumours, which are related to tissues that produce blood cells.

Squamous cell carcinomas in cats: clinical presentation and management

Squamous cell carcinomas in cats are neoplasms with a significant mortality rate.

Cancer in cats: neoplasms

Neoplasms, especially malignant tumours, are one of the main causes of death in adult cats. We analyse the main types of cancer in cats, their aetiology, diagnosis and lines of treatment.

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Uveitis in dogs: diagnosis and treatment

Uveitis in dogs is one of the main causes of eye disease and blindness.1

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Veterinary ophthalmology: what is feline corneal sequestrum?

Feline corneal sequestrum is an eye disease that begins with the appearance of brown or black plaques on the corneal epithelium and stroma (the most superficial layers of the cornea). The lesion is exclusive to cats and horses.

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Corneal ulcer in dogs and the effect of topical hyaluronic acid

Signs of corneal ulcer in dogs include pain, blepharospasm, enophthalmos, miosis, conjunctival hyperaemia and excessive tearing.

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Blepharitis in dogs: causes, diagnosis and treatment

Periocular lesions in dogs are very common in routine veterinary practice. However, there are many underlying causes, so knowledge of the various diagnostic methods and respective treatments of blepharitis in dogs is essential.

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Horner’s syndrome in dogs: aetiology and diagnostic protocol

Horner’s syndrome in dogs occurs when the sympathetic innervation to the eye is interrupted and it may affect one or both eyes.1

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Mouth infections in dogs: follicular cyst

Follicular cysts, also called dentigerous cysts, are rare types of odontogenic cyst found in the oral cavity of dogs. The structure appears in the mouths of some dogs due to an unerupted tooth.

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Periodontitis in dogs: clinical signs

Periodontitis in dogs is an irreversible process caused by the progression of gingivitis.1,2

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Gingivitis in cats: association between oral health and the retrovirus test

Gingivitis or gingivostomatitis is inflammation of the oral mucosa that mainly manifests in the gums, around the base of the teeth. It can also affect the oropharyngeal mucosa and tongue.

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Is there really such a thing as caries in dogs?

Caries in dogs is a poorly recognised disease in standard clinical practice, but it can cause severe and irreversible damage to the affected teeth.

Management of feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL)

Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions are a common clinical finding that represent a dental problem in cats. This article discusses their pathophysiology, how to diagnose them and reviews their potential treatments.

Conjunctivitis in dogs. Corneal and conjunctival cytology, a diagnostic aid

Conjunctivitis in dogs is inflammation or swelling of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is a clear, thin membrane that covers part of the front surface of the eye and inner surface of the eyelids. It acts as a physical and physiological barrier against microorganisms and foreign bodies, besides contributing to ocular immune defence.

Osteoarthrosis in dogs and cats: medical treatment

Osteoarthrosis is usually approached with a conservative, multimodal treatment that combines the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with nutritional management, weight control and limited exercise.

Canine physiotherapy for the treatment of hip dysplasia

Canine physiotherapy should form part of a multimodal approach to treating hip dysplasia in dogs. Here, we discuss the main techniques and the importance of diet.

Castration in cats and the possible consequences; how to approach each case.

Despite its advantages, castration in cats also comes with some negative consequences. We will analyse the pros and cons of castration, as well as the alternatives.

Common wounds to paws in dogs

As dog sports gain in popularity, wounds to the dog’s paws are becoming increasingly frequent. Here, we talk about the most common injuries and the treatment of choice in each case.

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Pancreatitis in dogs and the predictive role of C-reactive protein

Pancreatitis in dogs can be broadly classified as acute, recurrent or chronic. The histological characteristics of acute pancreatitis include pancreatic oedema with possible necrosis, a variety of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates, and peripancreatic fat necrosis and thrombosis. Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by fibrosis and low-grade mononuclear inflammation and may be a sequela of acute pancreatitis or a subclinical process that may manifest as diabetes or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

Veterinary laparoscopy: efficacy and safety of liver biopsy

Veterinary laparoscopy is a surgical technique that provides a direct view of the abdominal organs by inserting laparoscopic instruments through minimal incisions in the abdominal wall. It also facilitates a range of other surgical procedures, including biopsy.

Veterinary physiotherapy: An emerging discipline

The foundations of veterinary physiotherapy are generally attributed to Sir Charles Strong, the physiotherapist of the British Royal Family who, in the 1930s, dedicated his time to treating the Royal Family’s polo injuries using electrotherapy. Initially intended for humans, he later began to apply the treatment to horses that had been ridden in the polo matches. Its practical application developed from 1967 onwards following Strong’s publication of the first book on physiotherapy for horses.

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs

After pancreatitis, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, or EPI, is the second-most common disease of the exocrine pancreas in cats and dogs.

Hepatic encephalopathy in dogs: causes, diagnosis and treatment

This post looks at hepatic encephalopathy in dogs, which is a multifactorial disorder of the central nervous system with factors of varying relevance depending on the clinical situation.

Feline triaditis and pancreatitis: causes, diagnosis and treatment

Between 50 and 56% of cats with pancreatitis suffer from triaditis. We look at the possible causes of this condition, its diagnosis and the most appropriate treatment regimens based on the clinical signs.

Patellar luxation in cats: classification and treatment guidelines

Despite a wealth of information on patellar luxation in dogs, there are still very few publications on the topic in cats.1–3

Vaginitis in dogs: causes, diagnosis and treatment

Vaginitis in dogs occurs in entire or sterilised females of any age or breed and its main manifestation is a purulent, mucoid or mucopurulent vaginal discharge.

Orchiectomy in dogs: differences between an open and closed orchiectomy

While orchiectomy in dogs is a relatively straightforward procedure, it can still present complications. Here we analyse whether an open or closed orchiectomy is the more suitable option.

Castration in dogs: are there really no disadvantages?

Castration in male dogs should be preceded by an individualised analysis of the potential advantages and disadvantages associated with this procedure.  

Sterilisation for cats and dogs: an advantage or unnecessary risk?

Sterilisation is often used as a means of controlling pet populations and can also confer some health and behavioural benefits. It is one of the main strategies for combating pet abandonment, as control over birth rates reduces the number of large litters and therefore the number of abandoned animals. Learn more about abandonment in the Affinity Foundation study on abandonment, loss and adoption of pets in Spain 2016.

Phantom pregnancy in dogs: is it really a psychological pregnancy?

It is important to start by highlighting that canine pseudocyesis, often incorrectly called phantom pregnancy, is not a psychological disease, but rather a physiological state in female dogs due to hormonal activity. Phantom pregnancy in dogs tends to occur 6–8 weeks after oestrus, even in females that have not been mounted by a male.

Post-castration of male dogs: comparison between surgical and chemical castration

Chemical castration is a safe and effective alternative to surgical castration, although the latter has better results in controlling hormone levels in dogs.

Heat stroke: when a dog’s temperature control system fails

Any disruption to the temperature control mechanisms in dogs can lead to heat stroke (HS).

Arthritis in dogs: pharmacological treatment of osteoarthritis

Degenerative joint disease (DJD) or osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common causes of arthritis in dogs.