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Comprehensive veterinary information (Articles, Abstracts and Pathologies) in just one place.
When and why a cat’s teeth should be brushed
It is essential to clean your cat’s teeth to maintain good oral health.
Feline calicivirus: clinical signs and treatment

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly contagious RNA virus that is widely distributed among the cat population. It is a common cause of infections in the respiratory tract, digestive tract and ocular conjunctiva.

Uveitis in dogs: Ocular and periocular signs of leishmaniasis
Ocular lesions are relatively common in leishmaniasis. This article looks at their prevalence and clinical characteristics, particularly anterior uveitis, which is one of the most common conditions.
Feline ocular chlamydiosis
Feline chlamydiosis is an eye infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia felis.Chlamydophila bacteria are easily transmitted from one cat to another via direct contact, so it is more common among cats that live together in groups. It can affect cats of all ages but is typically seen in young cats.
Red eye in dogs: conjunctivitis
Red eye in dogs is a common sign of conjunctivitis. Here we look at the main types of conjunctivitis, their causes and the most appropriate treatment in each case.
Eye ulcers in dogs caused by ectopic cilia. Excision by biopsy
The correct diagnosis of ocular problems in dogs requires a complete and thorough examination of the eye and its adnexa, since akin to the rest of the animal’s organ systems, the eyes should receive routine check-ups and monitoring.
Corneal ulcers in cats: guidelines for managing ulcerative keratitis
An eye ulcer is a common cause for consultation of cats at the veterinary clinic and while most cases can be resolved with topical antibiotics, some require surgical treatment.
Managing urinary incontinence in cats
The diagnosis and treatment of urinary incontinence in cats may pose a significant challenge to veterinary surgeons.1
Spasms in cats: What is feline hyperaesthesia syndrome?
Feline hyperaesthesia syndrome should be viewed as a potential cause of spasms in cats.1,2
Vomiting in cats: aetiology and diagnosis of chronic vomiting
Vomiting in cats is classed as chronic if it lasts for more than 1–3 weeks and does not respond to symptomatic treatment.1,2
Cats and pregnancy: Pregnancy prevention using aglepristone
Female cats usually first come into heat between the ages of 6 and 9 months, and may remain in heat for almost the entire year, during which time their behaviour will change to attract males.
Pregnancy in cats. Rapid pregnancy kit
Physical changes that may indicate pregnancy can be detected in pregnant cats. These include cessation of heat cycles, swollen and reddened nipples, increased appetite, vomiting and enlarged abdomen. In addition to these changes, the vet may perform a clinical diagnosis to obtain further information.
Reproduction in cats: most common problems
Reproductive diseases in cats present unique characteristics inherent to this species that we need to understand.
AIDS in cats and kidney disease
AIDS is a relatively common disease in cats that increases their susceptibility to developing other clinical conditions. The possible relationship between feline immunodeficiency virus and kidney disease has been explored by studying factors such as proteinuria and azotaemia, as well as morphological changes to kidney tissue.
Advance Veterinary Diets Renal for cats
The various kidney problems that cats can suffer include chronic kidney disease, which may affect older cats. Advance Veterinary Diets Renal is a cat food that helps treat this problem
Kidney failure in cats: life expectancy depends on the aetiology
Kidney failure is a condition affecting the kidney, causing its dysfunction. It is the most common kidney disease in cats and the leading cause of death. It can occur in an acute or chronic form.
Kidney failure in cats in the terminal phase: An incurable disease
Kidney failure, which is synonymous with kidney disease or renal impairment, can occur in an acute manner, when the kidney fails quickly after previously being healthy, or in a progressive, silent and stealthy manner
Dentistry for dogs: importance of dental cleaning for dogs
Dental cleaning for dogs is vital for maintaining a good state of oral health.
Semintra for cats Slowing chronic kidney disease.
Chronic kidney failure is a common problem in elderly cats. Semintra, a medicinal product containing telmisartan as active substance, is used to treat arterial hypertension and reduce proteinuria in cats, thereby slowing the progression of this disease.
Magnetic resonance imaging in dogs: main indications
Magnetic resonance imaging in dogs is increasingly indicated for diagnostic purposes.
Diarrhoea in dogs: when should and when shouldn’t antibiotics be used?
Diarrhoea in dogs is a very common sign seen in most gastrointestinal diseases. The clinical picture and treatment of diarrhoea in dogs will depend on the aetiology of each case and the use of antibiotics must follow some specific indications. Let’s have a look at each case.
Gastritis in dogs and its relationship with helicobacter
The main symptoms of gastritis in dogs are vomiting and abdominal pain. Acute gastritis is nearly always associated with the intake of harmful substances. If not treated correctly, the acute form can evolve into chronic gastritis, which causes long-term damage in the form of atrophy of the mucosa. Other causes of chronic gastritis in dogs are infections (bacterial, viral, etc.) cancer, kidney disorders, liver disease and food allergies.
Constipation in dogs: diagnosis and management
If constipation in dogs is not well controlled and treated correctly, it may develop into a case of megacolon.1
Leishmaniasis in dogs: treatment with marbofloxacin and its efficacy.
Dogs develop leishmaniasis when they are infected by a protozoon from the Leishmania genus which is transmitted by the bite of its vector, mosquitos. It is prevalent in the Mediterranean region, where the predominant species is Leishmania infantum.
Allopurinol for dogs with leishmaniasis. Side effects
Leishmaniasis is one of the most prevalent vector diseases seen at veterinary clinics, so it is important to be aware of the various treatments available and their side effects.
Renal failure in dogs after ingestion of raisins or grapes
​The ingestion of grapes or raisins can cause kidney failure in dogs due to their toxicity. Clinical signs such as diarrhoea, vomiting, lethargy and renal alterations appear after their ingestion. The prognosis varies from case to case, but is often unfavourable, especially when accompanied by signs such as oliguria or anuria.
Shar Pei fever: from hocks to kidneys
Shar Pei fever is a condition that affects Shar Pei dogs and mixes and which typically courses with short periods of recurrent fever.1
Advance Veterinary Diets Renal for dogs
During their lifetimes, dogs can suffer from various kidney diseases. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the most common problem affecting the excretory system. To help dogs with such problems, Advance has developed ADVANCE VETERINARY DIETS RENAL, a dry dog food designed specially to treat CKD.
Differences between panting, dyspnoea and tachypnoea in dogs
 The presence of tachypnoea in dogs is not necessarily a sign of respiratory disease.
Yellow vomit in cats: what is bilious vomiting syndrome?
Yellow vomit in cats is not necessarily associated with liver disease.
Sebaceous cysts in dogs. Are they really sebaceous?
What we often call sebaceous cysts in dogs are really just a type of skin cyst that do not actually have a sebaceous origin.
Kidney failure in dogs: clinical signs
Kidney failure in dogs is a relatively common problem among elderly patients. Early detection of its main symptoms means an appropriate treatment can be designed to stop or slow the progression of the disease.
Kidney failure in dogs: benazepril and life expectancy
Kidney failure is the most common kidney disease in dogs and cats. It is characterised by a progressive and irreversible loss of basic renal functions.
Kidney stones in dogs: diagnosis and management
The clinical significance of kidney stones in dogs has increased exponentially over the past 10–15 years.
Calcium oxalate stone formation and dietary factors
Urolithiasis, which is the formation of sediments composed of poorly soluble crystalloids, is a common problem in dogs. The four most common minerals found in dog uroliths are magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), calcium oxalate, ammonium urate and cystine.
What is the correct diet to complement treatment for leishmaniasis?
The spectrum of diseases caused by Leishmania produce inflammatory and immune-mediated lesions in several organs, notably interstitial nephritis, dermatitis, chronic hepatitis and keratoconjunctivitis, among others. There is no cure for leishmaniasis, but it can be controlled. The prognosis is worse in animals with kidney failure.
Hyperadrenocorticism in dogs: treatments and life expectancy
Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) in dogs is due to an excess of glucocorticoids. This clinical condition affects the patient’s and owner’s quality of life.
Diabetes in cats: do these patients have a greater risk of heart failure?
​Diabetes in cats is a disorder that affects insulin regulation which can lead to hyperglycaemia. It is caused by insufficient insulin secretion from the beta-cells of islets of Langerhans found in the pancreas. It can develop due to amyloidosis, which is the accumulation of amylin in the pancreas, or insulin resistance.
Diabetes in cats: management and possible consequences
Diabetes can be classified as insulin-dependent (IDDM) or non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) diabetes mellitus. IDDM is characterised by hypoinsulinaemia, a lack of insulin secretion after administering glucose, the need for treatment with insulin and the tendency to develop ketoacidosis. Diabetes has a multifactorial aetiology that is influenced by genetics, breed, immune-mediated factors, acute pancreatitis (rare) and amyloid deposition in islet cells (which is relatively common in cats).
Hyperadrenocorticism in dogs: keys to diagnosis
Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC), also known as Cushing’s syndrome, is one of the most common endocrine disorders in older dogs, but it can be very hard to diagnose.